Library Science – Available Online Education Options |

The information inside a library has to be correctly managed and maintained so individuals can use it. Students can step into careers as librarians after completing the appropriate training. Available online education options for library science can provide students with the chance to gain undergraduate and graduate degree training in library science.Online education can be gained at the undergraduate study. However, for students that want to become librarians an associate’s or bachelor’s degree program will only act as a prerequisite to the required graduate training. To enter a master’s degree program in library science students need to have a bachelor’s degree. Students have two educational options to choose from when preparing for a master’s degree in library science.Online training at the associate’s degree level provides students with the knowledge to enter assistant positions inside a library. Students work through two-year programs that develop their knowledge of how libraries are ran and what tasks are to be completed by assistants. The daily operations are broken down to teach students how to correctly maintain the circulation desk, carry out reference research, and appropriately use library equipment. Coursework is designed to prepare students to understand how to manage and categorize information. Depending on the program, students may be able to study specific areas such as library technology or children’s services. Further education at the bachelor’s degree level deepens students’ knowledge of the field.Students that complete an online bachelor’s degree program gain an in depth education that can be applied to careers or graduate training. The modern library is broken down so students can understand how to correctly organize the media inside several different types of libraries. Library administration as a whole is learned and students are able to focus the rest of their courses on a particular area. For example, students that are interested in museum work can tailor their education to learning how to manage that type of information. Other possible areas include corporate, medical, school, and military libraries. Resource management, classification, media selection, and database usage courses are some subjects that will prepare students for the field. Students that don’t continue education can become technicians and associate librarians.Masters degree programs allow students to study information technology along with the entire field of library science. Students are able to correctly manage all information located in a library. Electronic and print materials are explored using the Dewey decimal system and the Library of Congress classification system. Specific courses break down the roles that librarians fulfill such as obtaining new materials and archiving materials for later use. Online programs typically have students choose a concentration and complete specific coursework related to that area. This is important because students learn how to catalog information for their concentration. Some possible areas of concentration include:Government
PublicFor each area students learn about source referencing, cataloguing, accessing information, and collection development. Education allows students to step into several careers, which may include becoming school, reference, media, and archival librarians.Accredited online education is a great choice for students that need to work from home. The American Library Association ( ) can provide online library science schools and colleges with the full accreditation they need to prove they offer quality career preparation and training. Begin the right educational path today and become a library science professional.DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at 2010 – All rights reserved by

When Special Education Fails |

The designating categories of special education have been carefully conceptualized by educators and are conscientiously considered in the cases of students who appear to have a barrier or barriers to learning. Most cases referred to school psychologists are straightforward and well understood. The majority of students referred and evaluated clearly meet criteria for one of the designating categories and is appropriately served as a result of the designation specified. Time and time again we have seen that when the student, designation, and assigned services match, the services received by the students lead to their progress.However, there is a growing number of students in every school district each year for whom we cannot seem to find an accurate match. These students continue to baffle educational professionals, despite their best efforts to understand and intervene. These are often the students who arrive to school, no matter how young, with a significant history already in the making. Some have been asked to leave their daycare or pre-schools. Some have been given disciplinary transfers from one school to another. Others come to school with long, often conflicting psychological and/or medical reports from outside agencies and hospitals with various diagnoses and recommendations, some tried, some abandoned, or are students quickly acquiring such reports. Numerous traditional forms of intervention were tried with little success. School psychologists review, observe, and consider what the situation may be with these students but cannot seem to put their finger on the specific challenges and needs of the students – on what the actual barrier to their successful education is. Designing and implementing effective interventions becomes futile because the problem is not clearly understood.When the problem is not clearly understood, we miss not only the opportunity to intervene within general education in an effective way but also the opportunity to use the designating categories of special education in a more accurate and comprehensive way. Some designating categories are broader and more encompassing than their current use implies, Other Health Impairment and Traumatic Brain Injury, specifically. They are underused as a result. A number of the more baffling students assessed would be better understood as having health impairments or brain injuries because of their significant medical histories or traumatic experiences. Educators have not yet considered these designations for many of the students who need them, most likely due to limited knowledge of current brain and nervous system research. The findings of the last decade – “the decade of the brain” – are critical to the work we do. Such findings point to the importance of considering pre- and peri-natal development, trauma, and stress, in both the student and the student’s caregivers when we assess for potential barriers to learning.Rather than simply identifying the problem and developing solutions for the problem as defined, we need to understand the source of the problem. That is what we do when we consider pre- and peri-natal development, trauma and stress. Understanding the source of learning and behavioral challenges is more important to best practice than ever before. In light of compelling research on the developing brain and its effect on the nervous system and self-regulatory capacities, we now know that without understanding the source of the problem, we do not understand its solution. Re-consideration of both the criteria for the designating categories, as well as the use of the categories, is implicated.Identifying barriers to learning is one of the most important things we do as educators. Within general education we have identified poor attendance, cultural and environmental conditions, second language issues, chronic illness, and economic disadvantages among others. Within special education we have assessed for developmental delays, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, emotional problems, and health impairments among others. There remains a group of students, however, whose inability to access their education with success is still not understood. There remains, in this twenty-first century, a misunderstood child.We first heard about the “misunderstood child” in the 1980’s when the book by the same name was originally published (Silver, 1984). The author helped us put a name to those students who were struggling with learning disabilities that at the time we did not know enough about. We rose to the challenges then of those students and learned to intervene with them in more effective ways. We learned at that time, just as we continue to learn today, that when we misunderstand children, we leave them behind.This is a new era. Twenty years after the publication of Misunderstood Child: Understanding and Coping with Your Child’s Learning Disabilities, we have new challenges to face in education. Post-9/11, in light of numerous school shootings, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters, and with media and internet access at an all-time high, our students experience exposure to local and global violence in frightening proportions. We would not only be naïve but also dangerously ignorant to think that this exposure is not having a significant impact on our students. In fact, we witness that impact in our classrooms and on our playgrounds every day. We hear more now than ever before about bullies, crises, and school violence. The growing focus of education on prevention and intervention in these areas is because we realize these problems are on the rise.As we face this new era, having committed to “no child left behind,” a reconsideration of our priorities and commitments in education is called for. We need to ask important questions. Have we identified, in either general or special education, all the possible barriers to learning and behaving in school with success? Are the designating categories as they are currently being used comprehensive enough to account for the barriers our students face? Why is there a growing number of students who do not fit into the categories as they are currently being used? Who are these students who do not fit? What are the barriers to their education? What do we need to start doing to assess them more accurately, identify them more comprehensively, and serve them more effectively?In an attempt to answer these questions, the groundbreaking book, Why Students Underachieve: What Educators and Parents Can Do about It, was written to review current research findings on the developing brain and nervous system – research that is completely relevant to education yet largely ignored. The findings of this research demonstrate that there is a direct and significant effect of experience on the brain and ultimately on learning and behavior. While the findings point to a single barrier that may underlie the struggles of both general and special education students, we must also acknowledge that our own limited awareness of these findings and their implications is also a barrier to the success of our students. We can only know how to help them when we know how their experiences have impacted their development. As the relationship between experience, the developing brain, and subsequent learning and behavior is made evident, it will become clear why no one needs this information more than educators.© Regalena Melrose, Ph.D. 2009

SCORM – Online Education Institutions |

Online learning or online education depends on a series of software applications for aiding the interaction between the tutor and the student via the internet. it is interesting to note that these software technologies provide the basic infrastructure by means of which it is possible for the online educational institutions to introduce assessments and gradation systems with the help of which it is possible for the e-learning tutors to evaluate their students. Moreover, it also allows the students to interact amongst themselves or with the teacher through online forums, blogs and emails as well. These software applications are supported by certain prescribed formats which they have to adhere to in order to aid the successful functioning of online education.SCORM refers to such a specification which e-learning tools have to conform to in order to aid the cause of online learning. SCORM is an abbreviation and it stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Here it is necessary to introduce one to the concept of ‘run-time environments’ which are a variant of the learning management systems. The run-time environment refers to the cooperation and coordination between the host systems and the content on the client’s side and it is this interaction which is ably supported by the Sharable Content Object Reference Model. SCORM was introduced as a specialized program in the year 2003 and it was initiated by the office of the United States Secretary of Defense. SCORM is a part of the Advanced Distributed Learning initiative and the various programs that are involved in the imparting of education through online learning need to conform to this system.The first version of SCORM known as SCORM 1.0 pioneered the concept of Sharable Content Object for the first time in the arena of the World Wide Web. SCORM 1.1 was the premier production version which made use of an AICC specified XML course content management file though it yet did not support the usage of metadata. However, the following version of SCORM was able to eradicate this shortcoming that plagued the precious version and it made use of IMS Content Management specifications for its functioning. At present SCORM 2004 is the prevalent model with three of its editions being introduced, the last being in October 2006. SCORM 2004 conforms to the IEEE standards necessary for API and it has introduced the concept of sequencing which is vital for aiding the various learners in their online learning process.